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Every Ingredient You’ll Be Eating and Drinking This Fourth of July (and What They Do to Your…

Every Ingredient You’ll Be Eating and Drinking This Fourth of July (and What They Do to Your Insides)

That cheeseburger is MUCH more than just a cheeseburger

We spent last week (and a bit of this week) breaking down the many, many ingredients in the foods and drinks you might find at whatever Fourth of July barbecue you attend today — and believe me when I say there’s a lot of shit in there. To help you make sense of everything you’re going to put into your mouth today, here’s an alphabetic list of all the barbecue-related ingredients we’ve covered (and which foods you can find them in).

Aluminum Sulfate: Aluminum sulfate is primarily used in the purification of drinking water; however, it also can be used as a firming agent in foods and condiments, helping all of the ingredients gel together. Unfortunately, this is an ingredient to watch out for: “There is growing evidence for a link between [aluminum] and [alzheimer’s disease],” a 2011 study concludes. Not to mention, by consuming aluminum sulfate, you’re consuming aluminum. Found In: Relish

Ammonium Sulfate: In baking, ammonium sulfate is used as a dough conditioner and dough strengthener. While manufacturers claim it’s safe in small amounts, this ingredient can also be found in fertilizers, and studies show that exposure to high levels of ammonium sulfate can result in respiratory failure, so beware of foods containing this ingredient. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Annatto and Paprika Extract: These provide a yellow color. Found In: American Cheese

Artificial Colors: Artificial colors have a bad reputation, but as physician and biochemist Cate Shanahan, author of Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food, told us during our analysis of Doritos, studies arguing this are a bit flawed: “I’ve always been of the opinion that studies claiming artificial colors can cause cancer are irrelevant because [in the studies] they use really high amounts of the artificial colors — like, a million times more than you’d ever get [in your] food [throughout your lifetime].” All in all, the average person’s liver should be able to break down whatever minuscule amount of artificial coloring we consume with food and drink. Found In: Doritos, Kool-Aid, Bomb Pops

Artificial Flavors: Artificial flavors are chemical compounds created in a lab that mimic a natural flavor in some way. Shanahan previously told us that she has no real problem with artificial flavoring: “They’re not killers because they’re added in very, very small quantities to food.” Found In: Bomb Pops, Doritos, Kool-Aid, Relish

Ascorbic Acid: Ascorbic acid is just another name for vitamin C. It’s used as a preservative. Found In: Hot Dog Buns, Kool-Aid

BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole (aka BHA) is a common preservative added to prevent products from spoiling. “In lower levels — like those found in foods — some researchers consider BHA to be perfectly safe,” nutritionist David Friedman, author of Food Sanity: How to Eat in a World of Fads and Fiction, previously told us. “On the flip side, the National Toxicology Program has concluded that BHA ‘is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.’” Generally speaking, BHA is probably worth avoiding as best you can. Found In: Bratwurst

BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene (aka BHT) is another common preservative added to prevent products from spoiling. Studies continue to go back and forth about whether or not it’s carcinogenic, so it’s hard to say for sure whether the small amounts found in many food products would cause you any harm. Found In: Kool-Aid

Buttermilk: Buttermilk is the byproduct of churning butter out of cream and is usually added to processed foods as a means of adding heartiness and oftentimes a sort of creamy texture. Found In: Doritos

Cabbage: You know this one. Found In: Relish

Calcium Peroxide: When used during baking, calcium peroxide strengthens the gluten wall in dough for better texture and moisture retention. Along with numerous other dough conditioners, calcium peroxide has been banned by Whole Foods, since dough conditioners tend to be dangerous for consumption. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Calcium Phosphate: Calcium phosphate can be taken as a calcium supplement, but it’s also added to foods and drinks as a thickener or stabilizer. Found In: Kool-Aid, American Cheese

Calcium Propionate: Calcium propionate is an antifungal added to many bread products to prevent mold growth. In addition to being linked to migraines, a 2002 study in the Journal of Paediatric Child Health found that chronic exposure to calcium propionate in children caused irritability, restlessness, inattention and sleep disturbance. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Calcium Sulfate: Calcium sulfate is added to stabilize foods and regulate their acidity levels. It can also be used as a flour treatment agent to increase the speed of dough rising and to improve the strength and workability of the dough. In the amounts typically found in food, calcium sulfate isn’t likely to cause adverse effects and is generally regarded as safe by the FDA. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Caramel Color: Caramel coloring has an incredibly controversial byproduct called 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI): A 2007 study found that mice fed a diet of 4-MEI developed cancerous lung tumors as a result. The FDA quickly pushed back, noting that a human would have to consume more than 1,000 cans of soft drinks (which are notoriously high in caramel coloring) every day for two years to reach comparable levels of 4-MEI.

Who’s right is still unclear . More recent studies argue that levels of 4-MEI are, in fact, high enough in soda and consumed in sufficient quantities by Americans to increase the risk of developing cancer. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Cellulose Gum: Cellulose gum is a common thickening agent. Consuming large amounts of it may add bulk to your stool and have a laxative effect, according to the FDA. Do you really have to worry about the small supply found in a Bomb Pop? Probably not. Found In: Bomb Pops

Cheddar Cheese (Milk, Cheese Culture, Salt, Enzymes): As Shanahan explained to us during our analysis of Doritos, suspicious-sounding ingredients like “cheese cultures” and “enzymes” are actually nothing to worry about: “Starter cultures and enzymes are just used to accelerate the process of coagulating milk into cheese. Pretty much all cheese is made using some kind of enzyme to speed up the fermentation process.” Found In: American Cheese, Doritos

Citric Acid: Citric acid is a sour flavoring agent derived from citrus, and it’s often used to make products practically immortal, with no major quality drop no matter how long they’re sitting on the shelves. Found In: Bomb Pops, Bratwurst, Doritos, Hot Dog Buns, Kool-Aid

Corn: Corn can be used as a batter to give fried foods (like chips) a light and crispy texture. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos

Corn Flour: Corn flour (aka corn starch) is extracted from the corn kernels through a similar method to the masa production described above. It’s typically used as a batter to give fried foods a light and crispy texture. Found In: Doritos

Corn Syrup: Corn syrup is a liquid sweetener made of glucose. It doesn’t get as much negative publicity as high fructose corn syrup — which has been linked to obesity and diabetes by many, many studies (more on that here) — but regular corn syrup can also be debilitating, considering it’s basically liquid sugar. Found In: Bomb Pops, Bratwurst, Hot Dogs, Ketchup, Relish

Cucumbers: The basis of traditional pickle relish. Found In: Relish

DATEM: DATEM (diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) is a potentially harmful dough conditioner, since it’s been found to cause heart problems in lab animals. Whether or not it should be a real point of concern for consumers, however, is still up for debate. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Dextrose: Dextrose is a sugar derived from starches, like corn. Fun fact: Dextrose has a high glycemic index, meaning it quickly raises the blood sugar levels, so it’s used in IV solutions to treat low blood sugar and dehydration. People with diabetes might also consume dextrose tablets to raise their blood sugar levels if they become dangerously low. Because of this blood-sugar-boosting effect, consuming dextrose also provides an almost immediate jolt of energy — followed by an inevitable crash. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Bratwurst, Doritos, Hot Dogs

Disodium Guanylate: Used in conjunction with MSG and disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate has a savory taste that essentially allows manufacturers to increase the flavor of food without loading it with sodium. The risks of consuming too much of this stuff is more or less the same as MSG — i.e., headaches and nausea. Again, though, Shanahan says there’s no reason to worry about these flavor enhancers as long as you consume them alongside some kind of protein — like, say, a turkey sandwich — to quell those negative effects. Found In: Doritos

Disodium Inosinate: A savory flavor enhancer that’s almost always used in conjunction with MSG and disodium guanylate (see below). It’s a purine, meaning it’s one of the building blocks of DNA, and thus, it’s often derived from animal origin like beef, pork, poultry and fish — so if you’re a vegetarian or a vegan, be sure to avoid products containing disodium inosinate. Found In: Doritos

Distilled Vinegar: Vinegar produced from the fermentation of distilled alcohol, this adds a slightly tart flavor. Found In: Hot Dog Buns, Ketchup, Mustard, Relish

Dried Red Bell Peppers: You know this one. Found In: Relish

Enriched Wheat Flour (Wheat Flour, Niacin, Ferrous Sulfate, Thiamin Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid): As we learned in our exploration of the many, many, many ingredients in the McDonald’s Big Mac, enriched flour isn’t actually “enriched” at all. In addition to containing more calories than whole wheat flour, the bleaching process enriched flour undergoes produces an unfortunate byproduct: A chemical called alloxan, which has been found to induce diabetes in lab-animal test subjects by destroying their pancreas. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

FD&C Yellow №5 and FD&C Blue №1: Artificial colors like these are commonly considered to be dangerous. That said, as Shanahan explained during our analysis of Doritos, studies arguing this are a bit flawed: “I’ve always been of the opinion that studies claiming artificial colors can cause cancer are irrelevant because [in the studies] they use really high amounts of the artificial colors — like, a million times more than you’d ever get [in your] food [throughout your lifetime].” All in all, the average person’s liver should be able to break down whatever minuscule amount of artificial coloring we consume with food. Found In: Relish

Fructose: Fructose is a type of sugar found in fruits and vegetables. It’s also found in many sweeteners, like high-fructose corn syrup, which is incredibly unhealthy. Found In: Kool-Aid

Garlic Powder: Yep, you guessed it, just dehydrated, ground garlic. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos

Ground Beef: Products categorized as “ground beef” may contain skeletal muscle, skeletal trimmings, head meat and up to two percent cheek meat — without having to specifically list these ingredients on the label — according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ingredient Standard List and Labeling Requirements for Ground Beef Products.

It’s also possible that a single package of ground beef may contain meat from a vast number of cows: In 2014, McDonald’s confirmed rumors that its beef patties can be made up of meat from more than 100 different cows, and a 2015 Washington Post article revealed that many supermarkets (and meat processing plants) use this same method.

Worse yet, ground beef may also contain a spattering of pathogens and actual shit (more on that here). Found In: Ground Beef

Guar Gum: Dagan Xavier, ingredient expert and co-founder of Label Insight, previously told us, “Guar gum is derived from guar beans and acts as a stabilizer and thickener to improve texture.” Found In: Bomb Pops, Relish

High Fructose Corn Syrup: High fructose corn syrup is corn syrup that’s had some of its glucose converted to fructose enzymatically. It’s a commonly-used sweetener, and has been linked to obesity and diabetes by many, many studies. So, if possible, you want to avoid anything containing this ingredient. Found In: Bomb Pops, Hot Dog Buns, Ketchup

Hydrogenated Soybean Oil: Soybean oil might be bad, but hydrogenated soybean oil is worse: When you add hydrogen to food via hydrogenation — which many manufactures do to increase the food’s shelf life — you get trans fats. Unfortunately, trans fats raise cholesterol, harden arteries and inhibit the formation of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, which helps determine the dilation of your arteries and regulates blood flow. So watch out for this ingredient. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Lactic Acid: Lactic acid is a sugar added for acidic flavoring. It’s the main sugar in milk and can also be used to speed up the coagulation process of cheeses. Found In: American Cheese, Doritos

Lactose: A dairy-derived sugar. Found In: Doritos

Malted Barley Flour: Malted barley flour is made from barley that’s allowed to germinate. It’s then steam-dried, hulled, ground and sifted. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Maltodextrin: An artificial sugar made from maltose (aka malt sugar) and dextrose (see above), maltodextrin is usually used as a thickener or filler ingredient to add bulk to processed food and to increase its shelf life. (Maltodextrin itself has a shelf life of two years.) Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos

Milk: From cows. Found In: American Cheese

Milk Protein Concentrate: Milk protein concentrate is a form of powdered milk that provides the same proteins found in fresh milk. As such, this is the primary contributor to the three grams of protein found in each slice of this cheese. Found In: American Cheese

Milkfat: Milkfat is the fatty portion of milk, which is usually added to processed foods as a means of adding heartiness and oftentimes a sort of creamy texture. Found In: American Cheese

Modified Food Starch: Modified food starch is extracted from the source (corn, potato, tapioca, rice or wheat), then treated physically, enzymatically or chemically to partially break down the starch. It’s typically used to add bulk, or as a batter to give foods a light, crispy texture. Found In: American Cheese

Molasses: Molasses is a viscous product made by refining sugarcane (or sugar beets) into sugar. It’s frequently used in barbecue sauce to add a slightly bitter flavor. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Mono and Diglycerides: Mono (aka, monoglycerides) and diglycerides are dough conditioners added to improve the texture or quality of dough. They’re oftentimes packed with trans fats that aren’t listed on the nutrition facts label, which is incredibly problematic: Because trans fats are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes, consuming more than you think you are (because they weren’t listed on the label) could do serious damage to your body. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Monosodium Glutamate: Best known as MSG, Monosodium Glutamate is a naturally occurring amino acid (one of the building blocks of protein) that’s added to foods as a savory flavor enhancer. Despite having a bad reputation for causing insatiable hunger, the food industry has no problem using it because it occurs in nature. And while Shanahan sort of agrees, there’s some room for worry. “Eating MSG without a high-protein ingredient in the food is a huge blast of MSG all at once, and some people are very sensitive to that,” she explains. “They’ll get headaches and some people who get seizures say they’ll get a seizure aura [that is, the feeling you get right before you experience a seizure].” Researchers, however, haven’t come to any decisive conclusions about the negative effects of MSG. Found In: Doritos

Monocalcium Phosphate: In baked goods, monocalcium phosphate reacts with baking soda to produces carbon dioxide, which helps the dough rise. When consumed in moderation, this ingredient isn’t anything to worry about. That said, an excessive amount of phosphates in the diet, particularly when contained in processed foods, can accelerate the aging process, increase the risk of heart disease and place undue stress on the kidneys. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Mustard Seed: This is the basis of every mustard. Found In: Mustard

Mustard Seed Oil: A fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing mustard seeds, this ingredient may help protect against heart disease, according to a 2004 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Natamycin: A mold inhibitor produced by bacteria, natamycin has been widely accepted as a natural alternative to chemical preservatives. It’s also used to treat fungal eye infections, which may leave a bad taste in your mouth (metaphorically speaking). But multiple studies have shown natamycin to be completely safe for human consumption. Found In: American Cheese

Natural Flavors: Natural flavors are flavors derived from an actual food source — i.e., potato flavoring taken from potatoes. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Bratwurst, Doritos, Hot Dogs, Ketchup, Mustard, Relish

Oleoresin Paprika: Oleoresin paprika is an oil-soluble extract from the capsicum annuum or capsicum frutescens fruits. It’s primarily used as a coloring agent or to add extra spice. Found In: Hot Dogs

Onion Powder: This is an easy one — dehydrated, ground onion used for flavoring. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos, Ketchup

Paprika: This provides a bit of heat. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Paprika Extract: More flavor. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Potatoes: You know this one. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Pork: In many sausages, manufacturers use “trimmings.” A purposefully vague term, trimmings are more or less leftovers picked up from the slaughterhouse floor, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: “The raw meat materials used for precooked-cooked products are lower-grade muscle trimmings, fatty tissues, head meat, animal feet, animal skin, blood, liver and other edible slaughter by-products.” Found In: Bratwurst, Hot Dogs

Pork Broth with Natural Flavoring: Pork broth is made by simmering various parts of a pig (including the bones) in a mixture of spices (which account for the “natural flavoring”), and water. All in all, this is added for flavor. Found In: Bratwurst

Polysorbate 80: Polysorbate 80 is often used to give sauces and condiments their saucy texture. Unfortunately, it promotes inflammatory bowel disease and a cluster of obesity-related diseases known as metabolic syndrome, according to a 2015 study. Found In: Relish

Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate: Potassium sorbate is a widely-used preservative that damages DNA when exposed to human blood cells, according to a 2010 study; however, long-term studies on the effects of regularly consuming this ingredient are required to provide a definitive answer on the matter. Another preservative, sodium benzoate has been shown to exacerbate hyperactive behavior in young children. Found In: Relish

Propyl Gallate: Often used in conjunction with BHA and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), propyl gallate is another preservative. Animal studies found that it’s “slightly toxic” when ingested. Found In: Bratwurst

Red and Green Bell Pepper Powder: Three more dehydrated veggies. Found In: Doritos

Romano Cheese (Part-Skim Cow’s Milk, Cheese Cultures, Salt, Enzymes): As far as process goes, this cheese goes through the same thing as the cheddar cheese mentioned above. Found In: Doritos

Salt: For flavor. Found In: American Cheese, Barbecue Chips, Bratwurst, Doritos, Hot Dog Buns, Hot Dogs, Ketchup, Mustard, Relish

Skim Milk: Skim milk is probably listed because it’s in the romano cheese. Found In: Doritos

Sodium Citrate: Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid (a sour flavoring agent and preservative derived from citrus). It acts as a preservative and can provide a sour taste when added in high amounts. Found In: American Cheese

Sodium Diacetate: Sodium diacetate is an acidic sodium salt widely used as a preservative to control the growth of mold and bacteria in food. It’s also commonly added to meat and poultry as a pH regulator. Found In: Hot Dogs

Sodium Erythorbate: This ingredient is a synthetic variation of ascorbic acid, which is just a fancy name for vitamin C. It’s used to prevent microbial growth and to preserve freshness. While sodium erythorbate is generally considered to be safe, you may experience headaches, dizziness, fatigue and lethargy if you’re sensitive to it. Found In: Hot Dogs

Sodium Lactate: Sodium lactate is naturally derived from the fermentation of lactic acid (a compound produced when glucose is broken down and oxidized), and it’s usually added to meat and poultry products because the salt acts as a preservative, preventing bacteria and fungi from growing. Medicinally, sodium lactate can also be intravenously injected to remove drugs from the body after an overdose. Found In: Hot Dogs

Sodium Nitrate: Sodium nitrate is yet another salt-based preservative that’s widely used in hot dogs, bacon and other cured meats. In higher doses, nitrates are also used as fumigants to kill rodents, but since they can leach into the soil, contaminating the food supplies, it’s no surprise that this ingredient is problematic: A study by the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii and the University of Southern California suggests a link between consuming processed meats (which are manufactured with sodium nitrate) and cancer risk. The study followed 190,000 people, ages 45–75, for seven years and found that people who ate the most processed meats had a 67 percent higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those who ate the least amount.

Other studies found that a high concentrate of sodium nitrate in infants and toddlers can lead to a condition called “blue baby syndrome,” which can sometimes be fatal. This happens when nitrates bind to red blood cells, blocking their ability to carry life-giving oxygen throughout the body. Found In: Hot Dogs

Sodium Phosphates: Sodium phosphate is a generic term that may refer to any sodium salt combined with phosphoric acid. They’re usually added as texturizers and emulsifiers, which allows for the uniform dispersion of numerous ingredients. One study suggests phosphate additives contribute to the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, and the FDA even issued a safety warning concerning the use of over-the-counter sodium phosphate products to treat constipation. All in all, this is an ingredient to be wary of. Found In: Hot Dogs

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate: This ingredient is a commonly incorporated in baked goods to strengthen dough, mix liquids and oils together and replace some fat and sugar. While it’s considered to be safe by the FDA, some people may experience an allergic reaction to the ingredient that consists of itching, swelling, mucus production, muscle spasms, hives and rash formation. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Sorbic Acid: Another preservative used for its antimicrobial properties, sorbic acid is on the FDA’s list of “generally recognized as safe,” or GRAS, substances. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Soy Lecithin: Soy lecithin is a component of fat found in (you guessed it!) soy. It’s typically added to food products as an emulsifier: In simpler terms, it helps the numerous ingredients found in these buns mix together. “It’s also frequently used to extend product shelf life,” explains Xavier, ingredient expert and co-founder of Label Insight. Board-certified nutrition specialist Jason Boehm adds that unless you have an extreme allergy to soy — which you’d know by now — soy lecithin isn’t anything to worry about. Found In: Hot Dogs

Soybean Oil: According to Shanahan, soybean oil is the most abundant of vegetable oils. Consuming too much of it has serious repercussions (e.g., fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and migraines), as we learned in our exploration of all 26 ingredients in Doritos. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Spices: What these spices are remains a mystery, because the FDA doesn’t require food labelers to list each spice by its specific name (as a means of protecting their recipes) so long as it follows their definition of the word “spice.” Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos, Ketchup, Mustard

Starch: This is typically used as a thickening agent, and like corn, it’s also used as a batter to give fried foods that light and crispy texture. Found In: Barbecue Chips

Sugar: For sweetness. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Bomb Pops, Doritos, Hot Dogs, Hot Dog Buns, Kool-Aid

Tomato Concentrate From Red Ripe Tomatoes: The bread-and-butter (well… tomato, I guess) of tomato ketchup. Found In: Ketchup

Tomato Powder: Another simple one — dehydrated, ground tomatoes. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Doritos

Torula Yeast: This is a type of yeast that has a smoky and savory flavor. It’s recently become a popular replacement for the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG), since it improves the texture and flavor of most foods. Fortunately, it’s healthier than MSG, too (more on that here). Found In: Barbecue Chips

Turmeric: This adds a little flavor and yellow color. Found In: Mustard

Vegetable Oil (Sunflower, Corn and/or Canola Oil): Shanahan previously told us that consuming too much vegetable oil (canola, sunflower or corn) — which is easy to do, considering Shanahan says roughly 45 percent of the average American’s calories come from refined oils — has serious repercussions (i.e., fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and migraines). While it’s nearly impossible to eliminate vegetable oil from your diet altogether — major contributors include processed foods, fried foods, frozen pizzas, cakes, cookies, margarines and coffee creamers — it’s best consumed in moderation. Found In: Barbecue Chips, Bomb Pops, Doritos, Ketchup, Relish

Vitamin D3: Because dairy companies have long suggested that their products help kids grow big and strong, some cheeses — like Kraft Singles — are fortified with vitamin D3, which helps the body absorb calcium and promotes bone growth. Found In: American Cheese

Water: You (hopefully) drink this one. Found In: Bratwurst, Bomb Pop, Hot Dogs, Hot Dog Buns, Mustard

Wheat Flour: Wheat flour is a powder made from grinding wheat. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Wheat Gluten: Those with celiac disease beware: Wheat gluten is wheat flour that’s been hydrated to activate the gluten, then processed to remove everything but the gluten. It’s added to improve the chewiness of the bun. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Whey: Whey is essentially the liquid leftovers after milk has been curdled and strained. It’s usually added to processed foods as a source of protein and to add bulk. Found In: American Cheese, Nacho Cheese Doritos

Whey Protein Concentrate: As Xavier explained to us during our investigation of protein powder, this is a form of whey protein (the protein-packed leftovers of cheese production) that contains a significant amount of whole nutrients. Found In: American Cheese, Doritos

Xanthan Gum: Similar to guar gum, xanthan gum is a thickening agent. It’s relatively harmless — that said, those with bowel issues should be wary when consuming it, as a study published in the British Journal of Nutrition found it to be a highly efficient laxative. Found In: Bomb Pops, Relish

Yeast: The fungus that causes dough to rise. Found In: Hot Dog Buns

Yeast Extract: Also known as autolyzed yeast, yeast extract results when yeast is broken down into its individual components, which include the flavor enhancer MSG. Because MSG is a natural component of autolyzed yeast, it doesn’t have to be listed separately on the ingredients lists — so watch out for this ingredient if you’re sensitive to MSG. Found In: Barbecue Chips